I was at a laundromat in Mantova watching my clothes tumble dry when a car going backwards down the street caught my eye. The driver approached an improbably small parking space on the left side of the street. Traffic behind him came to a standstill. As the driver backed in, his rear bumper hit the car behind him. He did not appear concerned, repeated the maneuver, then pulled ahead, hitting the car in front.
The driver got out and nonchalantly walked down the sidewalk. Traffic moved again. ‘So that’s how you parallel park,’ I thought, ‘just hit the cars in front and behind yours.’
The day prior, I had tried and failed to parallel park and drove well past my destination to park in a spot I could pull into.
Despite my inability to parallel park, I’ve driven, and parked, all-around Italy, from tiny Sicilian villages to rush hour in Milan. If I can park in Italy, surely you can too. If you can parallel park, you’re a big step ahead. And if you’re like me, I have hints to help you avoid it.
Parking in Italy is pretty straight-forward once you understand the signs and symbols. Parking spots are marked in lots or along the streets. Blue lines mean you have to pay, white lines are free, and yellow ones are reserved for residents, deliveries, or otherwise off-limits to the average tourist. Parking areas are denoted with a blue sign and a white P.
To understand no parking signs, remember that parking is blue, and things you can’t do are red. No parking is denoted with a blue circle with a red frame and a red backslash though it. Signs are posted on the side that forbids parking. You may also see the words “passo carrabile” on garage doors that seem like a great parking spot until you notice it’s a driveway. No stopping signs add another line to make a big red X over the blue circle. If a street does not have a no-parking sign, you can most likely park along it, as long as you keep the driveways clear.
To pay for blue-lined parking spaces, find the small machine nearby. Often the directions are in English. The price per minute will be posted. Insert euros in coins, bills, and increasingly, a credit card, or payment app. The machine will then print out a small slip which you put on your dashboard with the date and time displayed. I have seen the police check, so it’s worth the small amount to comply.
White lines represent free parking, although it may be time-limited. If you see a parking sign with a blue rectangle and what looks like a white smiley-face, you’ll need to set your disco orario. The sign indicates the duration of your free parking – 30 minuti and un’ora are the most common. Your rental car should have a disco orario, either in a small pouch stuck to the windshield or on the dashboard. If your car does not have one, you can buy one inexpensively at a tobaccaio which is a small store displayed by a “T”, or a gas station. Set the spin-dial on the disco orario to show the time you arrived. And no cheating – the police may check.
If you see a sign with crossed hammers it means the parking limit posted only applies Mondays through Saturdays. In other words, on Sundays or holidays, the posted restrictions are not enforced.
Typically, it is harder to find and more expensive to pay for parking in larger cities and as you near any town’s centro storico. Walled cities and small villages often have large lots outside the perimeter for campers and oversized vehicles. If you can walk distances, this is a great way to pull into a space without parallel parking and to avoid driving in cramped areas. If there is a fee, it usually costs less than within the town. On market days or holidays, it can be a huge time saver as well.
Most parking lots are unattended and require prepayment at entry, or you’ll take a ticket upon entrance and pay upon exit after inserting your ticket.
The smaller the town, the more likely you are to find free parking. It’s not uncommon to see parked cars facing both directions, but often parking is limited to one side of the street only.
If you are staying in a hotel, B&B, or Airbnb, ask your host about parking. Some can get you a pass or register your car with the local authorities so you can access a limited traffic zone (ZTL) and park. Especially in large cities, the nearest parking lot outside the ZTL is a long distance away. Some urban hotels have their own lots—if you can get in and out while avoiding the ZTL, but expect to pay. One hotel we like in Rome charges €70 per day to park.
You may want to upgrade your rental car to one with distance sensors and a backup camera. Once you’re parked, fold in your side mirrors. I was excited when attending a large festival to find a great parking spot in a large empty lot. By the time we left, the lot was packed with cars. I thought we would be stuck there. Even with sensors, it took a friend and a police officer to direct me out of the tight squeeze.
The phrase “Dove posso parcheggiare?” may come in handy. It’s pronounced doe-vay poe-so park-eh-jar-eh. It means where can I park? I’ve always been given good guidance by passersby when I’ve asked. Once, after struggling to translate a sign in front of a parking lot, a local gentleman came over to explain it was free. My confusion stemmed from the lack of any lines whatsoever in a giant lot just across the street from a Mediterranean beach in Sicily.
In a tiny medieval village in Sicily I found a free overnight parking spot on the left with nothing in front of it. Thrilled, I backed into it no problem. But, never having successfully parked on the left, when I opened the door, it whacked the curb. I put three scratches on a brand-new black rental car. Thankfully I always travel with a Sharpie marker. If you do end up parking on the left side of the road, take care when opening your door, and consider packing a marker.
Italy’s most popular tourist destinations are easily reached by plane, train, or cruise ship. But to see Italy’s hidden treasures, to travel like a local, to experience first-hand Italy’s dolce vita, rent a car and drive to smaller cities and tiny villages.
Driving in Italy is a sport. Italians drive fast, except when they drive slow. They tailgate, then slam on the brakes at a “zebra crossing.” They use both hands to speak while driving, and they drive in-between designated lanes, as if to create additional ones.
And yet, my trips to Italy were more immersive and enchanting once I got behind the wheel. It will for you too. Here is everything you need to know to drive in Italy.
Before you Drive
You’ve taken pictures of your rental car and are ready to leave the lot. Before you do, turn on your headlights. Low-beam and parking lights are required at all times in suburban areas and the motorways.
Buckle your seatbelts, even passengers in the back seat — it’s the law. Children under the age of four must be in an approved safety seat and children aged four to 12 are required to use a booster seat until they reach 1.5 meters tall (about 4.9 feet). Your car rental company can provide both.
Program your destination into Waze, or a similar GPS system that displays the speed limit, and alerts you when you’re exceeding it. Speed limits change often, even on the same road, and are not always marked. If you’re American, you may want to change your GPS settings to metric so they match the road signs.
Mobile phone use is allowed only in “hands-free” mode.
Leave your International Driving Permit in the vehicle. It won’t do you any good in your luggage in your hotel room. You also need your driver’s license.
As a general rule, the speed limit on major freeways, (Autostrada, some Strada Statale) is 130 km/h (80 mph), reduced to 110 km/h (68 mph) in rain or bad weather. On divided highways in suburban areas (Strada Statale), the limit is 110, or 90 (56 mph) in inclement weather. On secondary and local roads (Strada Provinciale) the speed limit is 90 km/h, reduced to 80 km/h (50 mph) when raining. In cities it is 50 km/h (31 mph) regardless of weather.
Speed limits are enforced by a vast network of cameras, which are marked but easy to miss, especially when you don’t speak the language, you’re trying not to get lost, and you’ve got one eye on your rearview mirror. Waze is good at warning when you approach a camera, but be advised some locations change weekly.
To add to the confusion, two different systems monitor speed. One is clearly marked “controllo elettronico della velocità con sistema tutor.” Usually on the Autostrade (plural for Autostrada), the Tutor system uses two cameras at fixed points to establish an average speed. If your average speed is over the limit, expect a ticket to arrive by mail. The second method, signaled by “controllo elettronico della velocità” is simply a camera with a radar, either in a box along the road or hand-held by a police officer.
As with the Tutor system, don’t expect to be pulled over and fined for speeding. You’ll get a ticket in the mail. If you really want to prepare, the Polizia di Stato website publishes camera locations, updated weekly. (In Italian, but you can use Chrome or an extension to easily translate.) Many small towns also have speed cameras that should be designated, but even at a slower speed, they are easily overlooked.
As stated on my speeding ticket, drivers are given a 5% tolerance over the posted limit, with a minimum of 5 kmh for a speed limit of 100 kmh or less. Anything above that speed is subject to fees that start at € 41 and can reach € 336. Fines increase incrementally with higher speed violations, and if it occurs in the evening, a surcharge is added.
Your first indication that you have a ticket is if a charge appears on the credit card that you used to pay for your rental car. You might even receive an email from the car rental agency advising you that you have received a ticket and they have charged you an administrative fee to provide your information to the local authorities.
The ticket itself may take months to arrive. The police have 360 days to notify you. My ticket arrived by registered mail almost 4 months later. My fine, for driving 4 kmh over the threshold in a 70 kph zone, was € 44.60 including “notification and procedure costs” if paid within 5 days of the receipt of the notification, which they know because they sent it certified mail. Hertz also charged me € 25 for the aforementioned administrative fee, lower than the € 50 that Europcar charged me for a “ZTL” infraction.
My ticket arrived the same day as my husband’s, although his was from a different region and 4 months before mine. Both were in English and provided websites to view our crimes captured on camera. They offered methods to appeal but none were convenient for a guilty foreigner. The only way to pay was by international wire transfer, for which many American banks charge exorbitantly.
I don’t know what happens if you don’t pay. Our tickets stated that after 60 days, “relevant tax authorities will be entitled to recover the half of the maximum amount of the violation” — more than double the fine. We drive often in Italy, so for us non-payment was never a question.
Italian Driving Quirks
Especially when driving on the Autostrada, you might think speed limits are not enforced in Italy, or that the drivers flying past you have some sort of immunity. Whether on the 8-lane Autostrada or a 2-lane country road, you’ll look in the rearview mirror that you just peeked at 3 seconds ago and suddenly a car has appeared out of nowhere, the driver is tailgating you, flashing their headlights, and gesticulating wildly. What we consider criminal tailgating is Italian habit. Don’t take it personally.
Stay in the middle or right lane on the freeways. Use the left-most lane only to pass and be quick about it. Signal your intent, but don’t expect other drivers to do so. Constantly check your mirrors, especially when changing lanes. Don’t try to understand why some drivers leave their turn signals on. I’ve asked several Italians and they don’t know either. If the driver behind you on a freeway flashes their lights, move to the right. Signs above the Autostrada display blue circles and speed limits by lane. Those are the minimum speeds you can drive in each lane.
Lane dividing lines are painted but don’t be surprised to see cars straddle them and drive in-between lanes, especially the left and middle ones.
Entrance and exit ramps are shorter on Italian highways so accelerate quickly to merge with traffic. Italians are fairly polite about moving over to accommodate incoming cars. The next exit is painted on the pavement in the right lane in addition to roadside signs.
Emergency stop areas are marked and often include a telephone. In the event of a breakdown or problem, wear the fluorescent safety vest usually found in the trunk of your rental car and place the warning triangle 50 meters from your car. In the unlikely event that you cannot reach your car rental agency, roadside assistance is available from the Automobile Club of Italy 24/7 by calling 800.116.800 from a foreign mobile phone.
Autogrill is the most common rest stop in Italy. I’ve had a light lunch in a couple of them and have left thinking that I could have eaten better for less money elsewhere. If you’re hungry and it’s lunch or dinner hours, exit the freeway, consult Google Maps, and find a local restaurant nearby. We stumbled upon a family owned bar and restaurant on the road from Rome to our house in the Marche. They source their own meats and breads locally and our lunch there was less expensive than Autogrill.
If it’s outside serving hours, Autogrill’s sandwiches are not bad. Ask them to heat it for you (caldo means warm). I’ve never had their cafeteria-style hot food. If you see several police cars or a lot of semi trucks parked at a rest stop, that’s a good sign. They know where to find a good meal on the go.
Drinking and Driving
Italy’s blood alcohol limit is 0.5 gr/l, or 0.05%, lower than many states in the U.S. If you are found above that, the penalties are severe. You can be fined € 527 to € 6,000, banned for driving, prosecuted, and imprisoned up to one year. Police routinely perform random security and sobriety checks. And not always at night. My husband Matt was driving from a wine tasting on a weekend afternoon when a police officer stepped into the road holding a stop sign. He approached our car and asked to see his license. Matt handed it to him, along with his International Driving Permit, which I think was the first one the police officer had ever seen by the curiosity with which he regarded it. The officer shook his head at his boss sitting in the car and waved us on. Thankfully, Matt had not been drinking, but don’t assume you won’t get stopped in broad daylight.
Most autostrade have tolls. At the first stop, you’ll get your ticket (biglietto). Do not pick the Telepass lane. As you exit the autostrada, you’ll have to pay. Again, do NOT take the Telepass lane. Pick a lane that shows a credit card symbol to pay by credit card (American cards accepted), or the money symbol to pay in cash. Insert your ticket, the machine will tell you what you owe, and gives change. If an agent is available, the sign will display a hand giving change. You can estimate the tolls for your route on the Autostrada website.
I found roundabouts pretty fun once I got the hang of them and it’s an easy way to turn around when I get lost. In a one-lane roundabout, you enter to the right when it’s clear and signal only when you get to your exit. In a multiple-lane roundabout, if you’re taking the first exit, you must use the right lane to enter and signal right. If you’re going straight, use the right lane to enter, and signal only when you approaching your exit. If you need to go left, enter the roundabout from the left lane and signal left, then move to the right lane, and signal right. That sounds more complicated than it is, and it becomes intuitive.
On two-lane country roads you might get stuck behind a tractor or a slow driver. You can pass on the left if it is not a “no passing zone” indicated by solid double white lines, and/or with a sign that has a red car to the left of a black one. That being said, ensure you check for oncoming traffic with the understanding that an approaching car can appear seemingly out of nowhere. Likewise, if a driver wants to pass you, move to the right a bit. I recommend familiarizing yourself with Italian road signs before you get there and bringing a printed version for quick reference.
Strade Bianche – White Roads
Are so called because they are typically white gravel. They might be paved or dirt, but in all cases, they are narrow. Commonly found in the idyllic countryside, these roads are not heavily trafficked or maintained. If you meet another car, the one going up a hill has priority. You may have to reverse to find space to allow them through. Take your time, relax, tranquillo. Italians driving in the countryside are generally very accommodating.
“Zona Traffico Limitato” The Dreaded ZTL
More than forty Italian cities have restricted traffic zones (ZTL), usually around the “centro storico” city center. In ZTLs vehicular traffic is restricted to residents, or authorized at certain times of the day, or a congestion charge is required to access. Research the areas where you plan to drive in advance and in Rome, look for signs that say “Varco Attivo” meaning the ZTL is active and you cannot enter. “Varco non Attivo” means you can drive freely. A sign that says “Zona Traffico Limitato” with a white circle and a red border is another sign not to cross, unless the hours posted below it indicate otherwise. In Milan’s center is an “Area C” for which you can buy a pass online and activate upon your arrival in Milan. In some smaller towns, your host or hotel may be able to register your car with the police to allow admittance.
As with speeding, ZTLs are enforced by a surprisingly efficient camera system, and if you violate one, you will be fined both by the authorities and the rental car agency.
Stop signs are red and say stop, so that’s easy. If you see a red circle with a white horizontal rectangle it means wrong way, do not enter. A narrow, white arrow on blue indicates one-way traffic, is often faded, and shockingly small. You may see the words “senso unico” which mean one way. A quick hint to determine if you are about to go the wrong way down a one-way is to look for parking signs on the street. If you can’t see any, you may be making a mistake.
I’ll cover parking signs in the next article of this series but “no parking” is represented by a red-framed blue circle with a red line through it. Just remember, parking signs are blue and things you can’t do are red.
You’ll see “Varco Aperto” on signs on the highways. It just means there’s a short stretch of road ahead where the center divider is missing.
Galleria means a tunnel, and they are marked with an odd sign that is clearly intended to represent a tunnel but when flying past it at 130 kmh, it doesn’t look like anything.
Crosswalks and other town hazards
At zebra crossings, or crosswalks with black and white striped lines, you are legally required to stop to allow a pedestrian to cross, usually screeching to a halt to do so. As a pedestrian though, do not assume the driver is paying attention and cross only when you know it’s safe.
There is no right turn on red in Italy. A red light means you can’t go anywhere.
An Italian would want to avoid traffic and drive their car in the bus lane but it’s a fineable offense. Thankfully, when I accidentally drove in the bus lane the only witnesses were curious bystanders.
In villages with narrow lanes, you may want to fold in your side mirrors when negotiating tight spaces.
Don’t blindly obey your GPS instructions. The app does not know it’s market day and the road is closed. If, like me, you find yourself driving through a crowded market in Sicily, smile and shrug in a rueful apology. You won’t be the first.
Diesel cars are common in Italy. Double check your rental’s fuel type before filling it with gas. “Benzina senza piombo” is unleaded gasoline and diesel or “gasolio” is diesel. Getting gas in Italy can be an adventure, and one you’ll pay a lot for. We recently paid € 1.73 per liter for diesel, or about € 6.65 per gallon.
Especially in rural areas, it may be hard to find a gas station open 24/7 and some close for lunch. Many gas stations offer full service, so if your rental car lacks washer fluid (it happens often to me) and you need your windows washed, pick full service. They sometimes give you a free coffee too.
To pump your own gas, look for “Fai da te” which means do it yourself. You may have to pre-pay at an outdoor kiosk by entering your pump number and credit card or cash. Some gas stations let you pay inside the store afterwards, or to an attendant outside with a credit card reader, or my favorite, a drive-through booth with an attendant. Some gas stations even have disposable gloves you can use. In large cities, micro gas stations are tucked along the streets.
The Cinque Terre and Amalfi Coast
I have been to both but have never driven them. In the Cinque Terre, the villages do not allow cars, so you pay to park outside the town, then walk (typically uphill). The narrow roads are hairpins and may induce carsickness. A train connects the villages from the La Spezia station, I recommend that or the ferryboats instead.
The Amalfi Coast is breathtakingly beautiful and the driver will miss it all because their eyes will be on the road. The passengers may get carsick, and if you drive there in the summer, you’ll spend a lot of vacation time in horrendous traffic and looking for a parking spot. The roads are narrow for two-way traffic and overridden with tour buses you can’t see coming around the curve. Unless you’re driving in the off-season, I recommend taking the public bus, hiring a driver for a day trip, or better yet, ride a ferryboat.
An Italian friend of mine thought his wife had not understood my Italian when she told him that I had driven in Sicilia. He later asked me, wide-eyed with incredulity, if the rumor was true.
Even some mainland Italians confess a fear of driving in Sicily. But if I can do it, so can you. That being said, do not drive in Palermo or Catania. Many Sicilians have cautioned me against doing so, and I heed local advice.
The rest of Sicily is drivable, with caveats. In my experience, GPS is not as accurate, so expect to get lost. In some areas, the roads are potholed, missing shoulders, and without dividing lines. A Sicilian driver behind me blared his horn when I dared to stop at a stop sign. Another driver honked his displeasure when, at the end of a road, I stopped to look, then waited for oncoming cars to clear before I proceeded. During a morning traffic jam in Trapani, we all drove around two stopped cars while the drivers conversed in the busy intersection.
Sicily is one of my favorite places in the world. Sicilians are warm-hearted, and if you get lost they will help you.
In my next articles I’ll cover everything you need to know to park in Italy.
If you think I’ve missed something or if you have any questions please leave a comment.
If you want to experience authentic and idyllic Italy, you’ll find it by driving through gorgeous countrysides and historic villages that don’t have train stations. You’ll discover artistic treasures, hyperlocal food and wines, jaw-dropping scenery, ancient ruins, soaring architecture, lower prices, and fewer tourists.
I do not like to drive, I cannot parallel park, and I have terrible navigation skills. Yet I’ve driven rental cars from Milan in the north to Sicily in the south, and the central mountains in-between. I’ve crept along cobblestone cart paths six inches wider than my Fiat and raced on the autostrada in an Audi, getting a speeding ticket and a ZTL fine along the way. I’ve been charged for damage to a rental car that I did not cause, which I chalked up to karma, having previously used a Sharpie marker to hide scratches that I did cause.
Here’s everything you need to know to rent a car in Italy.
Bring your IDP
Italians drive on the right-hand side of the road, so for Americans-no challenge. You’ll need a valid drivers license and an International Driving Permit, which you can get at a AAA office, or by mail. You do not have to be a AAA member. It costs $20 and is good for one year from the date they write on it. Hint: Ask the clerk to date it the first day of your rental.
Before reserving a car, check your credit card for Collision Damage Waiver insurance on rental cars in Italy. Many credit cards exclude Italy. Mastercard World Elite cards offer it in Italy for rentals less than 31 days and up to $50,000. If your card offers insurance, ask them to send you a letter of coverage that you can bring to show the agent who may try to upsell you into their coverage options. Remember to decline the rental agency’s CDW, or you’ll pay for theirs.
If your card does not provide insurance, add it to your rental at booking or at the counter. A rental agency employee once told me that 90% of their agency’s rentals come back with some sort of damage.
Can you Drive a Stick Shift?
Automatic transmissions are not as common in Italy. You may have to pay higher rates for an automatic car, although it varies by area. If you can drive a stick-shift, you can save significantly.
Consider a smaller car, especially if you’ll be driving in busy cities or small medieval villages. Many small-town roads were once cart paths and are shockingly narrow. Medieval walled cities are often accessed by centuries-old gates. A gentleman who had moved to an apartment in a walled town told me that the van he had rented to move his belongings got stuck in the city gate! Most villages have a carpark outside the walls for larger vehicles and campers.
If your destination includes mountainous or rural areas along gravel or dirt roads, don’t rent a low-profile sports car, like an Alfa Romeo Giulia. Get something with more height, and consider an automatic transmission if you’ll be in a hilly area.
Start your car rental search on Kayak.com for a rough idea of anticipated rental costs, then book direct with the rental company website. If you’re a AAA member, start on the AAA website. They often have a Hertz discount and have always had the lowest prices for Hertz, Dollar, and Thrifty. I’ve had no problems renting with Europcar and Sixt, who are transparent about added insurance costs. Leasys Rent is an Italian company that often has excellent prices.
Rental prices may be less expensive in off-airport locations and at train stations.
One-way rentals are available but you may pay more to drop off at a different location.
Drivers less than 26 years old may be charged a young-driver surcharge.
Car seats are required for children aged 4 and younger. Booster seats are required for those under 12 or 1.5 meters, approximately 4.9 feet. If you do not bring your own, rentals are available.
Check your roaming data allotment and speed to make sure they can support GPS. You may want to pay extra for a car with built-in GPS.
At major airports, there might be a “Gold” counter, but in most cases you need to queue to get your keys and contract, so allow extra time to pick up your rental. We once waited almost 2 hours to get a rental car from a well-known agency. Be aware that in some off-airport locations the office will close for lunch and have stated opening hours, outside of which you cannot pick up or drop off a car.
Check before you Rent
Research the parking and driving laws where you’ll be driving. A good place to start is your accommodation facility. For example, much of Rome’s historic center is in a “ZTL” area which means auto traffic is limited to residents with permits. Most cities have vehicular restrictions, but in some cases your hotel can register your car with the local authorities or you can purchase a pass for admittance. If I had bought a five-euro Area C pass for Milan, I would have saved the $50 fine assessed by the rental car company.
Yes, the rental car company will charge you anywhere from $30-75 in “administrative fees” for handing your information over to the local authorities if you violate any parking, driving, or speeding rules. In other words, every fine you incur is charged twice: once by the car rental agency, and once by the police.
If you are driving in the winter, November 1-April 30, you may need snow chains or winter tires, even if it’s not snowing. The police conduct random checks and the fines for noncompliance range from €41 to €335. Some car rental agencies offer this option when selecting your car online, but if not, ask at the counter, and expect to pay a modest fee. Each region sets their own schedule so check before you rent to determine your destination’s rules. (Please note that these links are in Italian but you can use Google Chrome to automatically translate.)
Take pictures of your rental!
When you do pick up your rental, examine it thoroughly for damage and verify that all of the damages are noted in your contract. Take pictures of the car with your phone before leaving the lot. One time I forgot to do so in a fit of jet lag, and I was charged $140 for a scratched rim that I did not scratch.
As you’re putting your luggage in the trunk, you might see a kit or a pouch in it. Italian law requires that drivers have a warning triangle and place it 50 meters away from the car in the event of a breakdown. A reflective vest must also be worn when stopped at night, in poor visibility, or in the emergency lane. Those items are usually found in the trunk but sometimes in the glove compartment.
Italians have a saying: “ne vale la pena,” which means, “It’s worth it.” And it is. Italy’s secrets are revealed to those who rent a car and drive to hidden gems.
In the next posts, I’ll cover everything you need to know to drive and park in Italy.
If you have any questions or think of something I have forgotten please leave a comment.